Best ways to handle multiply languages?

Hello guys.

I have developed a niched “information” website. I am very bad at SEO so i need your help to make the best out of this from the start.

For now the website is only in English but I want to add another language(and in the future maybe more).

some of my questions:
1. What way(s) would you recommend to code this to be as SEO compliant as possible?
2. What would be best SEO wise? to have one seperated website for each language, or to have all languages on the same website? My guess would be to have it on the same website(see backlinks).
3. what is the best way to code it and why? for example having subdomains:, Or just having a cookie which I save in db and output the correct language directly to or maybe there are other good ways to do this?
4. how do i know what language to deliver to a visitor that visits the website for the first time thru direct traffic?
5. How would i determine what language to show from traffic that comes from search engines? I only know how to do it if using subdomains since that automaticlly will give the user the correct language
6. how do i know what language to show for someone who has entered the website from an search engine but then another time visits the website directly with the url? Should i at every visit save a cookie with the language. unless there already is a cookie ofc

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